Well-to-wheels analysis of future automotive fuels and powertrains in the European context

Mar 2007

EUCAR, CONCAWE and JRC (the Joint Research Centre of the EU Commission) have updated their joint evaluation of the Well-to-Wheels energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a wide range of potential future fuel and powertrain options, first published in December 2003. The specific objectives of the study is:
Establish, in a transparent and objective manner, a consensual well-to-wheels energy use and GHG emissions assessment of a wide range of automotive fuels and powertrains relevant to Europe in 2010 and beyond.
Consider the viability of each fuel pathway and estimate the associated macro-economic costs.
Have the outcome accepted as a reference by all relevant stakeholders.
The Well to Tank (WTT) evaluation accounts for the energy expended and the associated GHG emitted in the steps required to deliver the finished fuel into the on-board tank of a vehicle. It also considers the potential availability of the fuels, through their individual pathways and the associated production costs. The Tank to Wheels (TTW) evaluation accounts for the energy expended and the associated GHG emitted by the vehicle/fuel combinations. It also includes an assessment of the expected relative retail prices of the various vehicle configurations. The related methodologies and findings are fully documented and discussed in the companion “Well-to-Tank” and “Tank-to-Wheels” reports. The main assumptions are summarised in sections 2 and 3 of this report respectively. This report describes the Well to Wheels (WTW) integration for the fuel/vehicle combinations considered, including:
An overall assessment of the energy required and the GHG emitted per unit distance covered,
An estimate of the costs associated with each pathway and the resulting costs of fuel substitution and of CO2 avoidance,
A discussion of practicality, potential and availability for the main alternative fuels and specifically for biomass-related fuels,
Considerations of alternative (outside the road transport sector) and optimum use of limited energy resources.
Sections 3 to 6 cover the different fuel/vehicle groups from conventional fuels and powertrains to hydrogen fuel cells. Section 7 is dedicated to CO2 capture and storage. Section 8 gives an overview of the costs of substitution and CO2 avoidance and of the potential availability of alternative fuels. Section 9 covers alternative uses of energy resources.

By: EUCAR, CONCAWE and the Joint Research Centre of the EU Commission (JRC)

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